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Archive for October, 2017

Source: În urmă cu 500 de ani 95 de afirmații ”vulgarizate” au schimbat istoria gîndirii creștine (occidentale) – ziua 55

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Astăzi se împlinesc 500 de ani de la afișarea celor 95 de afirmații elaborate de Luther. N-au fost bătute în cuie în sensul unei ofense adresate bisericii, ci au fost puse acolo pentru că acesta era modul în care se făceau cunoscute astfel de lucruri în acea vreme. Tensiunea acelei zile a fost mult mai mică decît ne fac filmele sau diferitele narațiuni, fie și ale unor istorici romantico-isterici, să credem.

Afirmațiile au fost publicate în latină. Titlul inițial a fost Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum. Abia traducerea tezelor în germană și vulgarizarea lor (atît în sens etimologic – coborîrea la vulg (popor), dar și vulgarizarea lor hermenutică) a generat apoi răspîndirea acestora și aprinderea miriștii deja uscate a Reformei.

Vulgarizarea însemna inițial popularizare. Din păcate, ambele procese s-au întîmplat și popularizarea și vulgarizarea, manipularea unor afirmații pentru a crea și mai multă tensiune.

Puțini au citit pînă la capăt cele 95 de teze și unele dintre acestea, fără cunoașterea contextului istoric și eclesial, sînt astăzi complet irelevante.

Iată cum va fi arătat documentul (foarte probabil):

sursa 

apasă link-ul pentru a descărca documentul într-un format lizibil.

sursa https://www.wdl.org/en/item/7497/view/1/1/

 

și textul latinesc:

LATIN TEXT

“Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum.”
by Dr. Martin Luther, 1483-1546
D. MARTIN LUTHERS WERKE: KRITISCHE GESAMMTAUSGABE.
1. Band (Weimar: Hermann Boehlau, 1883). pp. 233-238.
PW #001-001La

Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur
Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S.
Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare
petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare
agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi.
Amen.

1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam
agite &c.’ omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit.

2. Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et
satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest
intelligi.

3. Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est,
nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes.

4. Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia
vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum.

5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas
arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit.

6. Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et
approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos
sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret.

7. Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat
humiliatum in omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario.

8. Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque
morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi.

9. Inde bene nobis facit spiritussanctus in papa excipiendo in
suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis.

10. Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris
penitentias canonicas in purgatorium reservant.

11. Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii
videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata.

12. Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem
imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis.

13. Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui
iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem.

14. Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert
magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa.

15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere
penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori.

16. Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut
desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt.

17. Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni
horrorem ita augeri charitatem.

18. Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod
sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis.

19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine
certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus.

20. Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non
simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo
impositarum.

21. Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per
pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari.

22. Quin nullam remittit animabus in purgatorio, quam in hac vita
debuissent secundum Canones solvere.

23. Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari,
certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. paucissimis, dari.

24. Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per
indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem.

25. Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem
habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia
specialiter.

1. [26] Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam
habet) sed per modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem.

2. [27] Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam
tinnierit evolare dicunt animam.

3. [28] Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et
avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei
solius.

4. [29] Quis scit, si omnes anime in purgatorio velint redimi,
sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur.

5. [30] Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis,
multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis.

6. [31] Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere
indulgentias redimens, i. e. rarissimus.

7. [32] Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas
veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute.

8. [33] Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum
esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo.

9. [34] Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas
satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas.

10. [35] Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis
animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio.

11. [36] Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem
plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi
debitam.

12. [37] Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus,
habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam
sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam.

13. [38] Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est
contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine.

14. [39] Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul
extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram
populo.

15. [40] Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem
largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione.

16. [41] Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false
intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis.

17. [42] Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est,
redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus
misericordie.

18. [43] Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans
egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet.

19. [44] Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo
melior, sed per venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena
liberior.

20. [45] Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et
neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem
dei sibi vendicat.

21. [46] Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent
necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias
effundere.

22. [47] Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est
libera, non precepta.

23. [48] Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita
magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam
promptam pecuniam.

24. [49] Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si
non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas
amittant.

25. [50] Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones
venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Petri in cineres ire
quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum.

1. [51] Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet,
etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis
dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum
pecuniam eliciunt.

2. [52] Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si
Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret.

3. [53] Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias
predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent.

4. [54] Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel
longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi.

5. [55] Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum
est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur,
Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis,
centum ceremoniis predicetur.

6. [56] Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis
nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi.

7. [57] Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos
profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi  concionatorum.

8. [58] Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine
Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem
infernumque exterioris.

9. [59] Thesauros ecclesie s. Laurentius dixit esse pauperes
ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore.

10. [60] Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi
donatas) esse thesaurum istum.

11. [61] Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum
sola sufficit potestas Pape.

12. [62] Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium
glorie et gratie dei.

13. [63] Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit
novissimos.

14. [64] Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus,
quia ex novissimis facit primos.

15. [65] Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim
piscabantur viros divitiarum.

16. [66] Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc
piscantur divitias virorum.

17. [67] Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas
gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum.

18. [68] Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis
pietatem comparate.

19. [69] Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum
Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere.

20. [70] Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus
auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia
predicent.

21. [71] Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit
ille anathema et maledictus.

22. [72] Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum
Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus.

23. [73] Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii
veniarum quacunque arte machinantur,

24. [74] Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum
pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur,

25. [75] Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint
hominem, etiam si quis per impossibile dei genitricem violasset,
Est insanire.

1. [76] Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium
peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam.

2. [77] Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores
gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam.

3. [78] Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores
habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum &c. ut
1. Co. XII.

4. [79] Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci
Christi equivalere, blasphemia est.

5. [80] Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales
sermones in populum licere sinunt.

6. [81] Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec
reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a
calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm.

7. [82] Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter
sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam
omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam
funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam?

8. [83] Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et
non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum
iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare?

9. [84] Item. Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et
inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei
redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte
anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate?

10. [85] Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam
diu in semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur
per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi?

11. [86] Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis
Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum
fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri?

12. [87] Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per
contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et
participationis?

13. [88] Item. Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa,
sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has
remissiones et participationes tribueret?

14. [89] Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam
pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum
sint eque efficaces?

15. [90] Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate
compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam
hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere.

16. [91] Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape
predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent.

17. [92] Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo
Christi `Pax pax,’ et non est pax.

18. [93] Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi
`Crux crux,’ et non est crux.

19. [94] Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per
penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant,

20. [95] Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam
per securitatem pacis confidant.

M.D.Xvii.

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THE NINETY-FIVE THESES


By: Corum Hughes
October 13, 2017 at 11:00 am

Modern Protestants and Catholics may not see eye-to-eye on the actions and legacy of Martin Luther, but there is one thing we can all agree on—the church of 1517 was in dire need of a wakeup call.

Popular legend asserts that on October 31, 1517, Martin Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation when he nailed a document to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church in Germany. For him, this document was a much-needed criticism of corrupt preachers and their abusive practices of selling plenary indulgences (certificates which would supposedly reduce the punishment for the sin of loved ones in purgatory) to Christians.

Today, we know this as Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses, but it was originally titled the Disputation on the Power of Indulgences. Written first in Latin, it was quickly translated into German, distributed, and eventually led to Luther becoming a religious outlaw who could be killed on sight.

[Click here to learn about the stunning new documentary exploring the life and legacy of Martin Luther.]

But before you get into the nitty gritty of Luther’s arguments, here is a quick breakdown of some important highlights to look out for: theses 1-4 focuses on the need for repentance (not indulgences) in the Christian life, 5-13 concern the pope’s and priest’s power (or lack thereof) to influence someone’s status in purgatory, 14-16 challenges common beliefs about purgatory, 17-26 argue that no one can definitively say anything about the spiritual state of anyone in purgatory, 27-29 attacks the idea that payment of any kind can release the payer’s loved one from purgatory, 30-34 criticizes the false sense of certainty these indulgence preachers offered Christians, 35-80 gets into the meat of the argument against the role of indulgences in salvation and further problems with how they are being preached, 81-91 offers criticisms and objections from laypeople in Luther’s congregation, and 92-95 admonishes the reader to imitate Christ even if it brings pain and suffering.

Many of us have heard of this document, but few have read any of its contents. So, without further ado, here are the original words translated into English:

 

Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to dispute on them in that place. Therefore he asks that those who cannot be present and dispute with him orally shall do so in their absence by letter. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen.

1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, “Repent” (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.

2. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.

3. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.

4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.

5. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons.

6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.

7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest.

8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

9. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.

10. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory.

11. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).

12. In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.

13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.

14. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.

15. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.

16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation.

17. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.

18. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.

19. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it.

20. Therefore the pope, when he uses the words “plenary remission of all penalties,” does not actually mean “all penalties,” but only those imposed by himself.

21. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.

22. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.

23. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.

24. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty.

25. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and parish.

26. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.

27. They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.

28. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone.

29. Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.

30. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission.

31. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare.

32. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.

33. Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope’s pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.

34. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man.

35. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine.

36. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters.

37. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.

38. Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.

39. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition.

40. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them — at least it furnishes occasion for hating them.

41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love.

42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.

43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.

44. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties.

45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God’s wrath.

46. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.

47. Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not commanded.

48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.

49. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.

51. Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.

52. It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.

53. They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others.

54. Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.

55. It is certainly the pope’s sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

56. The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.

57. That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man.

59. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.

60. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ, are that treasure.

61. For it is clear that the pope’s power is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself.

62. The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God.

63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. 20:16).

64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.

65. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth.

66. The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men.

67. The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain.

68. They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross.

69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all reverence.

70. But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.

71. Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed.

72. But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed.

73. Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences.

74. Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to contrive harm to holy love and truth.

75. To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.

76. We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned.

77. To say that even St. Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy against St. Peter and the pope.

78. We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written. (1 Cor 12:28)

79. To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for this.

81. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity.

82. Such as: “Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church?” The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.

83. Again, “Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?”

84. Again, “What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, beca use of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love’s sake?”

85. Again, “Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in force?”

86. Again, “Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?”

87. Again, “What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings?”

88. Again, “What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?”

89. “Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy?”

90. To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to make Christians unhappy.

91. If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, “Peace, peace,” and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14)

93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, “Cross, cross,” and there is no cross!

94. Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell.

95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).

 

http://www.haventoday.org/programs/program-archive/

2017-10-30 REFORMATION 500 Part 1

2017-10-30 REFORMATION 500 Part 1 with Charles Morris

 

2017-10-27 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part

2017-10-27 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part with Charles Morris

2017-10-26 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part

2017-10-26 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part with Charles Morris

2017-10-25 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part

2017-10-25 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part with Charles & Janet Morris

2017-10-24 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part

2017-10-24 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part with Charles Morris

2017-10-23 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part 1

2017-10-23 REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW Part 1 with Dr. Carl Trueman

2017-10-20 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 5

2017-10-20 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 5 with Charles Morris

2017-10-19 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 4

2017-10-19 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 4 with Charles Morris

2017-10-18 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 3

2017-10-18 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 3 with Charles Morris

2017-10-17 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 2

2017-10-17 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 2 with Charles Morris

2017-10-16 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 1

2017-10-16 THE FIVE SOLAS AT 500 Part 1 with Charles Morris

 http://www.haventoday.org/series/reformers-you-should-know/

REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW- JOHN WYCLIFFE OCTOBER 23, 2017
 
REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW- JOHN HUSS OCTOBER 24, 2017
 
REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW- KATHARINA VON BORA OCTOBER 25, 2017
REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW- JUAN DE VALDES OCTOBER 26, 2017
 
REFORMERS YOU SHOULD KNOW- THOMAS CRANMER OCTOBER 27, 2017

JOHN WYCLIFFE: THE MORNING STAR OF THE REFORMATION


john-wycliffe-morning-star
October, 2017—This is the month where Christians around the world are commemorating 500 years since God used Martin Luther to start the Protestant Reformation. But Luther wasn’t the only one the Lord used to bring about this great gospel recovery. The events of the Protestant Reformation were set into motion long before Luther nailed his […]

THE FIVE SOLAS


five-solas-blog
Christians around the world are celebrating a momentous occasion this October—500 years of Reformation truth. And one of the most clear messages that came out of the Protestant Reformation can be distilled into five simple statements known as “The Five Solas.” Five key reformation truths called Solas (or “alones” in English) make up a complete […]

THE NINETY-FIVE THESES


the-ninety-five-theses
Modern Protestants and Catholics may not see eye-to-eye on the actions and legacy of Martin Luther, but there is one thing we can all agree on—the church of 1517 was in dire need of a wakeup call. Popular legend asserts that on October 31, 1517, Martin Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation when he nailed a […]

WHO IS MARTIN LUTHER?


who-is-martin-luther
This year marks the 500th anniversary of the moment when a little-known monk named Martin Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation and changed the course of human history. But who is this man who challenged the highest authorities of his day so that the truth of the gospel could be known and preached? Luther was the man God used […]

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 Reformation resources for you

The 500th anniversary of the Reformation is coming up on October 31st. This is the date when, 500 years ago, Roman Catholic monk and professor Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the University of Wittenberg’s chapel door. Nailing a tract on the door was not in itself an act of rebellion, but rather the usual and customary method of starting a discussion among scholars of religious points of the day. It was the 16th century’s version of the internet.

However, Luther’s theses were not just questions and discussion points, but a devastating critique of Roman Catholic practices. Luther had found in his studies that Roman Catholic faith and practice varied greatly from the word of God. Luther was especially upset over the practice of Indulgences, or payment to the Church for reduction or absolution of certain sins. Paying for sins to be forgiven seemed incredibly wrong to Luther. He wrote up his questions, intending to spark a discussion.

He sparked a discussion.

The discussion has been ongoing for 500 years.

The discussion split The Catholic Church and pitted it against those who were protesting, now known as Protestants.

The most confusing thing to me when I was an unsaved person was the Catholic Church. I thought it was a Christian church. Because of its size and longevity, I thought it represented true Christianity. What I didn’t know was that the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) is as far from Christianity as the east is from the west. It does not represent the faith of Jesus, but instead is a false belief system.

The protest Luther made was against certain practices and doctrines of the RCC. For example, the Jesus we know through the inspired scriptures is the central authority, not the Pope or other officials. Practices and rituals and good works do not save. Indulgences are nowhere found in the Bible. Though Luther initially wanted to renew the church, eventually it divided over these and other issues, and the Protestant reformation began.

Here are some Reformation Day resources for you-

Why We’re Protestant: An Introduction to the Five Solas of the Reformation Kindle Edition. A paperback edition exists. By Nate Pickowicz, Foreword by Steven J. Lawson. Nate is a pastor who shepherds a church in New England. His wife Jessica has written a Bible study to go along with MacArthur’s new book, Biblical Doctrine and facilitates a Facebook group regarding the weekly study sessions.

Synopsis: How do you discern true vs. false Christianity? In the days of the Protestant Reformation, the core tenets of the faith were strenuously examined. In the end, the Reformers maintained that at the heart of the Christian faith stood five main credos: sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide, solus Christus, and soli Deo gloria. This book examines these five “solas” and makes a definitive case for why we’re Protestant.

Reformation Women: Sixteenth-Century Figures Who Shaped Christianity’s Rebirth

By Rebecca VanDoodewaard. Rebecca and her husband William used to run a blog I liked, called The Christian Pundit.

Synopsis: Women are an essential element in church history. Just as Deborah, Esther, and the New Testament Marys helped shape Bible history, so the women of the Reformed church have helped to make its history great. In Reformation Women, Rebecca Vandoodewaard introduces readers to twelve sixteenth-century women who are not as well known today as contemporaries like Katie Luther and Lady Jane Grey. Providing an example to Christians today of strong service to Christ and His church, these influential, godly women were devoted to Reformation truth, in many cases provided support for their husbands, practiced hospitality, and stewarded their intellectual abilities. Their strength and bravery will inspire you, and your understanding of church history will become richer as you learn how God used them to further the Reformation through their work and influence.

Long Before Luther: Tracing the Heart of the Gospel From Christ to the Reformation by Nathan Busenitz  (Author), John MacArthur (Foreword)

Synopsis: Where was the gospel before the Reformation?

Contemporary evangelicals often struggle to answer that question. As a result, many Roman Catholics are quick to allege that the Reformation understanding of the gospel simply did not exist before the 1500s. They assert that key Reformation doctrines, like sola fide, were nonexistent in the first fifteen centuries of church history. Rather, they were invented by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others.

That is a serious charge, and one that evangelicals must be ready to answer. If an evangelical understanding of the gospel is only 500 years old, we are in major trouble. However, if it can be demonstrated that Reformers were not inventing something new, but instead were recovering something old, then key tenets of the Protestant faith are greatly affirmed. Hence, the need for this book.

The Mother of the Reformation: The Amazing Life and Story of Katharine Luther

by Ernst Kroker. Synopsis- The author paints an intimate picture of Katie and of family life in the Black Cloister during the formative years of the Reformation, showing how Katie s marriage to Martin Luther was a multifaceted vocation, with such tasks as household brew mistress, cloister landlady, property overseer, gardener, cow- and pig-herder, and fishwife. Indeed, Katie oversaw their home much like a lord in her kingdom, yet in the midst of it all stood the man to whom her work, concern, and duty were directed.

 Resources for children

The Barber Who Wanted to Pray by R.C. Sproul

Synopsis: This imaginative tale from R.C. Sproul, based on a true story, begins one evening with Mr. McFarland leading family devotions. When his daughter asks him how she should pray, Mr. McFarland shares a 500-year-old story about a barber and his famous customer.

Master Peter is a barber well-known to all in his village. One day, when Martin Luther the Reformer walks into his shop, the barber musters up the courage to ask the outlawed monk how to pray. Luther responds by writing a letter to the barber. The barber’s life and many others’ are changed as they encounter a model for prayer by using the Lord’s Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the Apostles’ Creed.

Martin Luther- Christian Biographies for Young Readers, by Simonetta Carr

Synopsis- Five hundred years ago, a monk named Martin Luther wrote ninety-five questions, hoping to start a discussion about sin and repentance at the University of Wittenberg in Germany. In a few months those questions had stirred the nation; a few years later, the continent. Today we know that those questions changed the course of both the Western church and world history. In this volume for children, Simonetta Carr tells the compelling story of this father of the Protestant Reformation, tracing his quest for peace with God, his lifelong heroic stand for God’s truth, and his family life and numerous accomplishments. The Reformer’s greatest accomplishment, she writes, “has been his uncompromising emphasis on the free promise of the gospel.”

Movie-

Martin Luther: The idea that changed the world, PBS documentary, 9/2017, as synopsized by Banner of Truth Trust here. The PBS documentary has an extended trailer here. Official website here.

http://the-end-time.blogspot.com/2017/10/reformation-resources-for-you.html

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Halloween is a high satanic holiday! As Christians, we should fast & pray for people, esp. children entrapped &/or being lured into the occult.  Any ex-Satanist will testify to the blood sacrifices and horror that take place every single Halloween.  Anton LaVey: founder of the church of Satan has been quoted as saying (in reference to Halloween)  he’s glad that Christian parents allow their children to worship the devil at least one night of the year! We can’t allow ourselves to be deceived by a professed Christian encouraging us to open our doors to Halloween for ANY reason, esp. something as lame as being a “witness” to your neighbors.  Witness to them throughout the year.  Don’t be deceived.  “Be alert and of sober mind.  Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion seeking someone to devour.” (1Peter 5:8) One of satan’s greatest snares is to entice you w/ something that seems innocent & benign. That’s how he gets a foothold in our lives, it starts w/ getting his foot in the door. Do NOT open the door to Halloween.  Remember, he’s the devil.

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halloween-satanism (1)Anton Lavey, fondatorul bisericii sataniste, se bucura enorm ca parintii ii lasa copii sa serbeze pe diavol cel putin odata pe an

Fondatorul bisericii sataniste si cel care a scris biblia satanica, Anton Lavey, a declarat ca se bucura enorm ca parintii ii lasa copii sa serbeze pe diavol, cel putin odata pe an.
Mulţi dintre români au preluat, de câţiva ani, dintr-un mimetism modernist, care nu are nimic de a face cu discernământul, Halloween-ul, macabra sărbătoare occidentală, care sub masca unor distracţii (tembele) este o veritabilă invocare a demonilor şi făpturilor infernale. Putem vedea cu această ocazie o defilare spectrală, de oameni deghizaţi în schelete, arătări hidoase, vrăjitoare, fantome, mumii, vampiri, vârcolaci, monştri, criminali sângeroşi care împânzesc străzile şi se sperie unii pe alţii cu tot felul de farse şi glume macabre şi nesărate. În vitrinele magazinelor, în parcuri, în companii, în localuri, în şcoli şi universităţi, pe uşile caselor, peste tot apar vrăjitoare călare pe mătură, dovleci-felinar, coarne şi alte simboluri mai mult sau mai puţin demonice. Camaşa arată Halloween-ul, o „sărbătoare“ pe care sataniştii declaraţi o consideră printre cele mai importante.
Din păcate, milioane de oameni care se declară „creştini“ şi chiar împotriva satanismului, au ajuns să creadă cu naivitate că nu este nimic rău în aceste „distracţii nevinovate“. Realitatea este însă cu totul alta. Halloween este o invocare a maleficului.
Biserica, slăbită enorm în ultimele decenii, a obosit să se mai lupte cu Halloween-ul, acceptând în mod aberant evenimentul ca pe o sărbătoare distractivă, adresată chipurile, culmea prostiei, în special copiilor, tocmai cei mai lipsiţi de apărare şi de discernământ… Cea mai bună dovadă că este vorba de un eveniment ocult, abject şi inspirat de forţele întunericului este acela că însuşi „părintele“ modern al „bisericii lui Satan“, tenebrosul şi terifiantul Anton Szandor LaVey, obişnuia să spună că Halloween este una dintre cele mai mari sărbători în calendarul satanic, alături de „Noaptea Walpurgică“ sau Sabatul vrăjitoarelor, de pe 1 mai.
Originile ritualului
„Sărbătoarea“ de Halloween îşi are originile în vremuri îndepărtate. Atunci, două anotimpuri erau văzute ca importante, vara şi iarna. Anul Nou începea cu prima zi de iarnă, la o dată care, după calendarul modern, cade la 1 noiembrie. Mai important era însă ajunul noului an, când avea loc festivalul sfâşitului verii. În secolul 19, se pare, a fost fabricată o zeitate numită Samhain, care personifică sfârşitul verii, fiind văzută ca „stăpân al întunericului“. Puterea acesteia creşte pe măsură ce ziua se scurtează şi noaptea e mai lungă, fiindca ea nu poate umbla pe Pământ decât după lăsarea întunericului. În popor se credea că în ajunul anului nou, pe 31 octombrie, graniţa ce desparte lumea morţilor de cea a viilor devine extrem de permeabilă. Din aceasta cauză, momentul era foarte prielnic pentru ca spiritele celor morţi în cursul anului să revină în lumea pământească, bântuind în căutarea unor trupuri pe care să pună stăpânire pentru a scăpa din tărâmul morţilor. Pragul dintre cele două lumi, care nu se află, practic, în nici una dintre ele, este păzit de creaturi fioroase ale tenebrelor, reprezentate ca demoni ori ca vrăjitoare, ceea ce explică popularitatea unor costume şi deghizaţii morbide şi macabre de asemenea natură. Dacă nu reuşeau să captureze un om, spiritele întunericului se mulţumeau adesea şi cu un animal, în special o pisică neagră, aceasta din urmă fiind şi astăzi un simbol al Halloweenului.
Veghea de Halloween. Ameninţarea spiritelor rele
Exista în vechime, în preajma zilei de Halloween, obiceiul de a strânge lemne pentru aprinderea unor ruguri sacre, de obicei pe vârfurile dealurilor, pentru comemorarea sufletelor celor morţi.
În acea seară, oamenii se adunau cu mic, cu mare în jurul rugurilor sfinte pentru a veghea şi pentru a invoca zeii luminii să călăuzească sufletele morţilor din familie în tărâmul de dincolo.
După terminarea ceremoniei, oamenii luau cărbuni din focul sacru pentru a-şi lumina drumul spre casă, dar şi pentru a aprinde un nou foc în vatră. Acest tăciune era, de regulă, cărat într-un nap scobit pe dinăuntru, înlocuit mult mai târziu de dovleac. Pentru a se proteja de influenţele spiritelor rătăcitoare, cei vechi se îmbrăcau în costume înfricoşătoare şi ciopleau mutre cu rânjete hidoase pe napul-felinarul în care purtau tăciunele. Ei se deplasau în procesiuni foarte gălăgioase, rupând şi trântind de pământ tot ce întâlneau în cale, tot ca metodă de a pune pe fugă spiritele.
Tradiţia rugului sfânt s-a păstrat Irlanda, Scoţia şi Tara Galilor. Lemnul pentru focul din noaptea de Halloween se adună din timp şi în unele regiuni există obiceiul de a arde şi un anume tip de muşchi de pădure. Spre deosebire de ce se petrece în America, în Europa spiritele morţilor continuă să reprezinte o parte însemnată a tradiţiei de Halloween. Dacă pe vremuri, oamenii vegheau toată noaptea cu o torţă aprinsă pe prispa casei, acum ei se mulţumesc să aprinda lumânări pentru sufletele celor decedaţi. În această noapte, oamenii poartă felurite talismane pentru a se proteja de duhurile rele. Tot pentru alungarea duhurilor întunericului se trag clopotele şi se bate în lemn (deloc întâmplător, în tradiţia noastră populară s-a păstrat această vorbă). În acelaşi scop, înainte de apusul soarelui, se obişnuieşte să se înconjoare casa de trei ori, mergând cu spatele. În aceste zone se spune că o persoana născută de Halloween poate vorbi cu duhurile.

Creştinism versus „păgânism“

În urmă cu mai bine de 1200 de ani, în încercarea de a eradica sărbătorile „păgâne“ şi a-i creştina pe bretoni, irlandezi şi englezi, papa Grigore al IV-lea a decretat în anul 835 ziua de 1 noiembrie ca sărbătoare religioasă, închinată martirilor credinţei – Ziua tuturor sfinţilor. În 1006, Papa Ioan al XVIII-lea a decretat Ziua de 2 noiembrie Ziua morţilor. Tradiţia păgînă, însă, era atît de înrădăcinată în conştiinţa oamenilor, încît a fost nevoie de un compromis: o sărbătoare creştină, grefată pe vechiul cult al strămoşilor. În Marea Britanie, sărbătoarea s-a numit All Saints Day sau All Hallows Day, iar seara dinaintea ei, ajunul, All Hallows’ Evening. În timp, prin prescurtare, a devenit Hallows’E’en şi de aici Halloween.

Obiceiul de a oferi bucate celor care bat la uşă este o reminiscenţă a ritualurilor ancestrale, legat de pomana pentru sufletele morţilor, adoptată şi de creştinism. Astfel, este atestat din secolul al IX-lea obiceiul ca, în această perioadă a anului, sărmanii şi cerşetorii să bată la uşile creştinilor pentru a cere pomană, care consta în special dintr-un fel de „prăjiturele pentru suflet“, bucăţi de pâine cu afine. Cu cât mai multe prăjiturele primea cerşetorul, cu atât mai multe rugăciuni se angaja să rostească pentru sufletele rudelor decedate ale stăpânului casei. Chiar rostite de un intermediar, rugăciunile aveau menirea de a ajuta sufletele sa găsească mai repede drumul spre rai. A refuza să dai de pomană pentru morţi era considerat un adevărat sacrilegiu, iar cel care îl comitea se expunea „răzbunării“ cerşetorului nemulţumit. Expresia „trick or treat“ derivă din această tradiţie, căci cel care îndrăznea să încalce tradiţia, cel care cu alte cuvinte nu oferea pomană (treat) trebuia pedepsit, jucându-i-se un renghi (trick). Una dintre cele mai vechi pedepse utilizate de colindători era aceea de a bate la uşă şi de a se ascunde apoi, astfel încât gazda să se sperie când vede că nu este nimeni la uşă. Astăzi, reacţia firească în faţa unui asemenea gest este una de enervare, ştiut fiind că aceasta e o biată glumă proastă, însă în Evul Mediu semnificaţia era sinistră, anume că însăşi moartea a bătut la uşă, căci ea este singura invizibilă…
Ziua morţilor în spaţiul carpatic
În fiecare an, pe 1 noiembrie sau în cea mai apropiată duminică de această dată, creştinii din România îşi celebrează morţii, dând copiilor dulciuri şi aducând ofrande şi pomană celor „duşi pe ceea lume“.
Emblema sărbătorii, bostanul cioplit, luminat cu ajutorul unei lumînări, este un obicei caracteristic mai degrabă Ardealului, unde toamna tîrziu se pun astfel de „felinare“ pe stîlpii porţii. „Distracţia“ tâmpă, specifică sărbătorii Halloween, atît de populară la americani, le era până de curând necunoscută românilor, preocuparea fiind exclusiv pentru omagiul şi pomenirea celor trecuţi în lumea umbrelor.
Bătrînii satului şi copiii lor de la oraş se adună la cimitir, pun pe morminte ştergare ţesute sau prosoape, colaci copţi pe vatra cuptorului propriu sau la vreo patiserie cu firmă luminoasă, lumînări şi mere. Copiii primesc bomboane, mere şi biscuiţi, fără să fie costumaţi în făpturi înspăimântătoare şi groteşti şi fără să strige „Trick or Treat!“, însă unii dintre ei – ministranţii – chiar îşi merită din plin dulciurile câştigate, căci merg din casă în casă timp de cîteva ore, apoi cântă şi se roagă, alături de preot, la fiecare mormânt în parte.
Când se închină paharul, se spune „Dumnezeu să-i ierte!“, nu „Sănătate!“, nici „Noroc!“. Bătrânii de la ţară spun „Să trăiţi cu toţii, să-i pomeniţi pe cei plecaţi dintre noi, şi poate o să mă pomeniţi şi pe mine, dacă nă-ţi uita!“…
Halloween în America
De fapt, sărbătoarea de Halloween a ajuns în America abia în jurul anului 1840, adusă de valul masiv de imigranţi irlandezi goniţi de acasă de marea foamete din epocă. Aceştia au adus cu ei şi „legenda“ cam cretinuţă a felinarului-dovleac. Povestea spune că un anume Jack, individ cunoscut drept beţiv şi pus pe trăznăi, a avut într-o zi proasta inspiraţie de a-i juca un renghi Satanei. Jack l-a convins pe diavol să se urce într-un copac, apoi a scrijelit pe trunchiul acestuia o cruce, simbol ce-l împiedica pe drac să coboare. Satana a fost lăsat să se dea jos numai dupa ce i-a promis omului că îl va lăsa în pace toata viaţa lui. După ce a murit, Jack nu a fost primit în Rai din pricina numeroaselor sale păcate, văzându-se obligat să meargă în Iad, dar nici aici nu a fost admis, diavolul fiind încă supărat de renghiul cu copacul. Pentru a nu-l lăsa totuşi să orbecăiasca veşnic prin beznă, dracul i-a dat lui Jack un tăciune aprins care să-i lumineze calea, iar omul a pus tăciunele într-un nap scobit. Ajunşi in America, imigranţii au descoperit că dovleacul este un suport mult mai încăpător, folosindu-l de atunci în locul napului. Chiar şi în zilele noastre, dovleacul scobit ca să arate ca o faţă care rânjeşte ameninţător este numit „Jack-o-lantern“, „felinarul lui Jack“.

Ce a devenit Halloween astăzi se vede cel mai bine în SUA, unde se câştigă foarte mulţi bani de pe urma prostiei oamenilor. Dintr-un prilej de comemorare a morţilor familiei, sărbătoarea a degenerat complet, ajungând o sinistră mascaradă, penibilă şi cretină, prilej de batjocură, oamenii întrecându-se în răzbunări oribile şi „glume“ macabre. Industria cinematografică, televiziunile, barurile, restaurantele, discotecile, parcurile de distracţii, industria dulciurilor, producţia de costume şi de decoraţiuni, toate aduc câştiguri enorme, iar oamenii trebuie să plătească dacă vor să se „distreze“. În SUA se obţin profturi comparabile cu cele de Crăciun, altă sărbătoare batjocorită şi transformată într-o stresantă goană după brad, globuri şi cadouri.


Dracul şi dovleacul marca USA poposesc şi în România
Integrarea în UE şi occidentalizarea societăţii face ca în România autorităţile să se simtă obligate (la presiuni deloc dezinteresate) la o adevărată maimuţăreală a sinistrei sărbători americane, care este promovată pe toate canalele şi cu toate puterile.
Astfel, Teatrul Naţional pentru Copii îşi deschidea la un moment dat stagiunea cu spectacolul „Lampa lui Jack“ – o punere în scenă pentru copii a poveştii dovleacului de Halloween, poveste în care Diavolul joacă rolul principal, în realitate o şcolarizare mascată a satanismului pentru copiii români…
„Protipendada“ Bucureştiului s-a adunat la Palatul Parlamentului pentru a participa la Balul de Halloween. Internetul românesc este plin de felicitări virtuale cu specific de Haloween, precum şi de bizare oferte „festive“: manichiură în ton cu momentul, gheare stilizate negru-portocalii, tichii cu coarne care se aprind alternativ, sfaturi pentru construirea unui coşciug, ca să poţi apărea un „mort“ cât mai autentic la petrecerea de Halloween!!!
La grădiniţele de bon-ton din capitală se face „serbare de Halloween“, în şcoli elevii sunt învăţaţi chiar de către profesori cum să îşi confecţioneze costumele şi decorurile adecvate. Discotecile din campusurile studenţeşti şi localurile se întrec în a organiza „seri de Halloween“ care sunt luate cu asalt de tinerii dornici de distracţie. În 2002, în parcul Moghioroş din cartierul Drumul Taberei, primăria sectorului 6 a organizat „Carnavalul groazei“ şi a oferit premii copiilor care aveau cel mai înfricoşător costum.
Iar acestea, în vreme ce în Rusia, Ministerul Educaţiei a decis să interzică orice eveniment legat de sărbătoarea Halloween-ului în şcoli. Un reprezentant al ministerului, Alexander Gavrilov, a declarat că această hotărâre se menţine din 2003, iar motivaţia este legată de faptul că această sărbătoare promovează cultul morţii, personificarea morţii şi a forţelor răului, fiind în contradicţie cu natura instituţiilor de învăţământ. Gavrilov a precizat că Haloweenul „tulbură mintea şi afectează sănătatea spirituală şi morală a elevilor“, concluziile sale fiind împărtăşite de o serie de psihiatri consultaţi pe această temă.
Halloween-ul, devenit un prilej de adorare a demonilor, are efecte dezastruoase
Psihologii şi psihiatrii establishmentului se întrec în a scorni, la comandă şi cu plată, teorii care mai de care mai sofisticate, sucite, aberante şi cumplit de periculoase, cum că Halloween-ul este, de fapt, „o celebrare emfatică a morţii, care are chiar o importanţă socială imensă pentru că aduce în conştiinţa occidentală sentimentele refulate despre subiectul morţii, generând experienţe benefice care-i vor face pe copii şi adulţi să-şi învingă teama de moarte“(??!!).
Cu toate aceste josnice elucubraţii teoretice, cu spoială de ştiinţă, adevărul este altul. Toate statisticile indică, mai ales în SUA, ţara unde această sărbătoare pervertită a atins apogeul maleficului, creşterea violenţelor în timpul Halloween-ului. Acest moment al anului se remarcă prin numărul cel mai mare de acţiuni violente, fapte penale, „glume“ proaste care duc la accidente grave, distrugeri, numărul cel mai mare de beţivi, consum crescut de droguri la persoane din ce în ce mai tinere, inclusiv la copii. Studiile Gallup certifică, de asemenea, efectele cumulative dezastruoase ale acestei sărbători, ce marchează profund psihicul copiilor, care nu au mecanisme psihice pentru a se apăra de această deversare a demonicului, a urâtului, a odiosului, a magiei negre în viaţa lor emoţională şi ajung ulterior să le accepte ca fireşti, în mod necondiţionat.
Se ştie că răul este mult mai uşor acceptat atunci când pare un simplu joc. Această „sărbătoare“, în realitate o adevărată oroare, îi familiarizează de fapt pe cei mici, prin jocul macabru, cu răul, agresivitatea, scabrosul, monştrii, grotescul, infernalul, sinistrul, satanicul, vrăjitoria şi magia neagră. Să nu ne mirăm, prin urmare, că în timp, copiii se obişnuiesc cu prezenţa maleficului, percepută ca o „joacă“ sau o „distracţie“…
Sursa: http://deveghepatriei.wordpress.com/2011/10/28/halloween-o-sarbatoare-satanica/

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The Five Solas – Points from the Past that Should Matter to You

Justin Holcomb

The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century changed Christianity forever. Roused to action by the corruption and abuses they saw in the Roman Catholic church of the time, visionary pastors and leaders like Martin Luther and John Calvin spearheaded a movement that transformed Christianity and eventually led to the emergence of the Protestant denominations that exist today.

The Reformers were guided by the conviction that the church of their day had drifted away from the essential, original teachings of Christianity, especially in regard to what it was teaching about salvation—how people can be forgiven of sin through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ and receive eternal life with God. The Reformation sought to re-orient Christianity on the original message of Jesus and the early church.

The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Reformation to summarize the Reformers’ theological convictions about the essentials of Christianity.

The Five Solas are:

  1. Sola Scriptura (“Scripture alone”): The Bible alone is our highest authority.
  2. Sola Fide (“faith alone”): We are saved through faith alone in Jesus Christ.
  3. Sola Gratia (“grace alone”): We are saved by the grace of God alone.
  4. Solus Christus (“Christ alone”): Jesus Christ alone is our Lord, Savior, and King.
  5. Soli Deo Gloria (“to the glory of God alone”): We live for the glory of God alone.

Let’s have a brief look at each of these five points.

SOLA SCRIPTURA

The Scriptures are our ultimate and trustworthy authority for faith and practice. This doesn’t mean that the Bible is the only place where truth is found, but it does mean that everything else we learn about God and his world, and all other authorities, should be interpreted in light of Scripture. The Bible gives us everything we need for our theology.

Every word of the 66 books of the Bible is inspired by God’s Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit also helps us to understand and obey Scripture.

2 Peter 2:20, the Bible is about Jesus Christ and his role as God and Savior. Additionally, Romans 15:4 is 2 Timothy 2:16.

SOLA FIDE AND SOLA GRATIA

We are saved solely through faith in Jesus Christ because of God’s grace and Christ’s merit alone. We are not saved by our merits or declared righteous by our good works. God grants salvation not because of the good things we do, and despite our sin.

As humans, we inherited (from our ancestor Adam) a nature that is enslaved to sin. Because of our nature, we are naturally enemies of God and lovers of evil. We need to be made alive (regenerated) so that we can even have faith in Christ. God graciously chooses to give us new hearts so that we trust in Christ and are saved through faith alone.

God graciously preserves us and keeps us. When we are faithless toward him, he is still faithful.

We can only stand before God by his grace as he mercifully attributes to us the righteousness of Jesus Christ and attributes to him the consequences of our sins. Jesus’ life of perfect righteousness is counted as ours, and our records of sin and failure were counted to Jesus when he died on the cross.

Sola fide and sola gratia express the teaching of Ephesians 2:8:

“Forby grace you have been savedthrough faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.”

SOLUS CHRISTUS

God has given the ultimate revelation of himself to us by sending Jesus Christ, Colossians 1:15. Only through God’s gracious self-revelation in Jesus do we come to a saving and transforming knowledge of God.

1 Timothy 1:5. Because God is holy and all humans are sinful and sinners, 1 John 1:1 Hebrews 7:25Romans 8:34. Neither religious rituals nor good works mediate between us and God. Acts 4:12 by which a person can be saved other than the name of JesusHebrews 7:23, and his sacrificial death alone can atone for sin.

SOLI DEO GLORIA

Glory belongs to God alone. God’s glory is the central motivation for salvation, not improving the lives of people—though that is a wonderful by product. God is not a means to an end—he is the means and the end.

The goal of all of life is to give glory to God alone: “Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God” (1 Corinthians 10:31).  As The Westminster Catechism says, the chief purpose of human life is “to glorify God and enjoy him forever.”

Justin Holcomb is an Episcopal priest and teaches theology at Reformed Theological Seminary and Knox Theological Seminary. Justin wrote On the Grace of God and co-authored with his wife Lindsey Rid of My Disgrace and Save Me from Violence. He is also the editor of Christian Theologies of Scripture. You can find him onFacebookTwitter, and at JustinHolcomb.com.

http://www.christianity.com/church/church-history/the-five-solas-of-the-protestant-reformation.html

 

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Princess of the Reformation: Jeanne D’Albret. New Release! Book trailer

Published on Sep 20, 2017

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